Bellovin, Jason Nieh Email privacy is of crucial importance. Existing email encryption approaches are comprehensive but seldom used due to their complexity and inconvenience. We take a new approach to simplify email encryption and improve its usability by implementing receiver-controlled encryption: To avoid the problem of users having to move a single private key between devices, we implement per-device key pairs:
Motivational salience Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase".
This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal gangliaand mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behavior, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward.
Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure, however outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire.
Dopamine is further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine increased the break point in a progressive ratio self-reinforcement schedule. That is, subjects were willing to go to greater lengths e.
Each stage of the cycle is composed of many dimensions including attitudes, beliefs, intentions, effort, and withdrawal which can all affect the motivation that an individual experiences. Most psychological theories hold that motivation exists purely within the individual, but socio-cultural theories express motivation as an outcome of participation in actions and activities within the cultural context of social groups.
These fundamental requirements include food, rest, shelter, and exercise. The next set of needs is social, which refers to the desire for acceptance, affiliation, reciprocal friendships and love. As such, the natural system of management assumes that close-knit work teams are productive.
Accordingly, if an employee's social needs are unmet, then he will act disobediently. The first type refers to one's self-esteem, which encompasses self-confidence, independence, achievement, competence, and knowledge.
The second type of needs deals with reputation, status, recognition, and respect from colleagues. The highest order of needs is for self-fulfillment, including recognition of one's full potential, areas for self-improvement, and the opportunity for creativity.
This differs from the rational system, which assumes that people prefer routine and security to creativity. Self-management through teamwork[ edit ] To successfully manage and motivate employees, the natural system posits that being part of a group is necessary.
As a result, individual employees have lost their sense of stability and security, which can be provided by a membership in a group. However, if teams continuously change within jobs, then employees feel anxious, empty, and irrational and become harder to work with.
Wage incentives[ edit ] Humans are motivated by additional factors besides wage incentives. For instance, the straight piecework system pays employees based on each unit of their output. Based on studies such as the Bank Wiring Observation Room, using a piece rate incentive system does not lead to higher production.
Because supervisors have direct authority over employees, they must ensure that the employee's actions are in line with the standards of efficient conduct.
An individual's motivation to complete a task is increased when this task is autonomous. When the motivation to complete a task comes from an "external pressure" that pressure then "undermines" a person's motivation, and as a result decreases a persons desire to complete the task.
However, recent research on satisficing for example has significantly undermined the idea of homo economicus or of perfect rationality in favour of a more bounded rationality. The field of behavioural economics is particularly concerned with the limits of rationality in economic agents.
Flow psychology and Ikigai Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early s. Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to seek out new things and new challenges, to analyze one's capacity, to observe and to gain knowledge. The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior.
In these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in playful and curiosity-driven behaviors in the absence of reward. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is a critical element in cognitive, social, and physical development.
The employee has the intrinsic motivation to gain more knowledge. Traditionally, researchers thought of motivations to use computer systems to be primarily driven by extrinsic purposes; however, many modern systems have their use driven primarily by intrinsic motivations.
Even traditional management information systems e. Not only can intrinsic motivation be used in a personal setting, but it can also be implemented and utilized in a social environment.
Instead of attaining mature desires, such as those presented above via internet which can be attained on one's own, intrinsic motivation can be used to assist extrinsic motivation to attain a goal.Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..
The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence. Title Authors Published Abstract Publication Details; Easy Email Encryption with Easy Key Management John S.
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