Prior to the Industrial Revolution, families lived on small farms and every able member of the family did work to support and sustain the family economy. There was a lower standard of living, and because of poor sanitation people died earlier. After the Industrial Revolution, farm work was replaced by factory work. Women became the supervisors of homework.
The continuing apprehension about teenage pregnancy is based on the profound impact that teenage pregnancy can have on the lives of the girls and their children. Teenage pregnancy is defined as occurring between thirteen and nineteen years of age.
There are, however, girls as young as ten who are sexually active and occasionally become pregnant and give birth. The vast majority of teenage births in the United States occurs among girls between fifteen and nineteen years of age.
When being inclusive of all girls who can become pregnant and give birth, the term used is adolescent pregnancy, which describes the emotional and biological developmental stage called adolescence.
The concern over the age at which a young woman should give birth has existed throughout human history. In general, however, there are two divergent views used to explain teenage pregnancy. Some authors and researchers argue that labeling teen pregnancy as a public health problem has little to do with public health and more to do with it being socially, culturally, and economically unacceptable.
The bibliographic citations selected for this article will be extensive. The objective is to cover the major issues related to teenage pregnancy and childbearing, and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing.
Childbirth to teenage mothers in the United States peaked in the mids at approximately births per 1, teenage girls. Inthe rate of live births to teenage mothers in the United States dropped to a low of 34 births per 1, This was the lowest rate of teenage births in the United States since Inthe live births to teenage mothers continued to decline to This was a drop of Insomebabies were born to girls between fifteen and nineteen years of age.
Among girls fourteen and younger the rate of pregnancy is about 7 per 1, About half of these pregnancies 3 per 1, resulted in live births. In spite of this decline in teenage pregnancy over the years, approximately34 percent of teenage girls in the United States become pregnant each year.
These pregnancies and births suggest that the story of teenage pregnancy is not in the numbers of teen pregnancies and births but in the story of what causes the increase and decrease in the numbers.
With the objective in mind to better understand teenage pregnancy, a general overview is provided as a broad background on teenage pregnancy. Citations are grouped under related topics that explicate the complexity of critical forces affecting teenage pregnancy.
Topics that provide a global view of the variations in perception of and response to teenage pregnancy will also be covered in this article. General Overviews Adolescent pregnancy is a complex issue with many reasons for concern.
Teenage pregnancy is a natural human occurrence that is a poor fit with modern society. In many ways it has become a proxy in what could be called the cultural wars. On one philosophical side of the debate, political and religious leaders use cultural and moral norms to shape public opinion and promote public policy with the stated purpose of preventing teen pregnancy.
To begin, Martin, et al. Leishman and Moir provides a good overview of these broader issues. Demographic studies by organizations like the Alan Guttmacher Institute Alan Guttmacher Institute give a statistical description of teenage pregnancy in the United States.
The number of teen pregnancies and the pregnancy outcomes are often used to support claims that teenage pregnancy is a serious social problem. The other side of this debate presented in publications by groups like the World Health Organization World Health Organization reflects the medical professionals, public health professionals, and academicians who make a case for viewing teenage sexuality and pregnancy in terms of human development, health, and psychological needs.
The association between teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage, however, is not just found in the United States. This phenomenon is not isolated to the United States and Great Britain; it is global. To round out this general overview, the article Jiang, et al. The best sources for research are professional journals and monographs from national and international health and development organizations focused on specific countries, regions, and global teenage pregnancy variations and trends.
Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions: Alan Guttmacher Institute, The statistics reveal discernible variations in teen birth and abortions between states. There is also a wide variation in teen pregnancy between racial and ethnic groups.
Since the slight increase in rates have continued to decline. Medical, Psychosocial, and Public Health Responses. By Andrew Cherry and Mary Dillon, 39—Comments → Why Ben Shapiro Is A Total Fraud. Ezekiel May 6, at am.
Okay – a lot to take in, for someone who just recently started taking politics seriously, but damn. This is an evisceration. Abstract. This article illustrates the difference between individual and structural accounts of poverty in the U.S. Some of the correlates of poverty among individuals are job loss, low skills, female family head, discrimination against blacks and hispanics, family size, and age at marriage.
The Martins begin their discussion of the American black helping tradition by studying its place of origin, which was Africa.
The major forces which they attribute the birth and growth of the helping tradition are the African extended family, mutual aid, socialclass cooperation, malefemale equality, prosocial behavior, fictive kinship, racial .
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Welcome from the Author. Welcome to this Sociology of the Family Free Online textbook. I am the author and have worked with my own university students over these recent years to provide open courseware free textbooks for anyone, anywhere who would like to read them.
Comments → Why Ben Shapiro Is A Total Fraud. Ezekiel May 6, at am. Okay – a lot to take in, for someone who just recently started taking politics seriously, but damn. This is an evisceration.