It forms a background of ethical theories and it often remains as implicit knowledge. History of Ethics depicts changes of this background as well as particular ethical theories of each philosopher.
Saint Augustine is usually indentified as the first individual to offer a theory on war and justice. The Saint referred to the Bible and regarded some wars as necessary to amend an evil.
The moral justifcations for a war are expressed in jus ad bellum; whereas, the moral conduct of the war is expressed in jus in bello. The Just-War Theory is a set of rules for military combat. Principles of Just-War Theory 1. Last Resort A just war can only be waged after all peaceful options are considered.
The use of force can only be used as a last resort. Legitimate Authority A just war is waged by a legitimate authority. A war cannot be waged by individuals or groups that do not constitute the legitimate government.
Just Cause A just war needs to be in response to a wrong suffered. Self-defense against an attack always constitutes a just war; however, the war needs to be fought with the objective to correct the inflicted wound. Probability of Success In order for a war to be just, there must be a rational possibility of success.
A nation cannot enter into a war with a hopeless cause. Right Intention The pirmary objective of a just war is to re-establish peace.
In particular, the peace after the war should excede the peace that would have succeeded without the use of force.
The aim of the use of force must be justice.
Proportionality The violence in a just war must be proportional to the casualties suffered. The nations involved in the war must avoid disproportionate military action and only use the amount of force absolutely necessary.
Civilian Casualties The use of force must distinguish between the militia and civilians. Innocent citizens must never be the target of war; soldiers should always avoid killing civilians. The deaths of civilians are only justified when they are unaviodable victims of a military attack on a strategic target.Just War Theory.
Read Chapter One through Chapter Three of The Ethics of War and Peace: An Introduction to Legal and Moral Issues.
Explain in detail, the following: a. What you consider the four most important tenets from the Just War Theory of Cicero, Saint Ambrose, or Saint Augustine.
b. Explain. Church Fathers The Church Fathers, an 11th-century Kievan Rus' miniature from Svyatoslav's Miscellany The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers. There is no definitive list. The era of these scholars who set the theological and scholarly foundations of Christianity largely ended by AD 1.
Explain what you believe to be the four most important tenets from the Just War Theory of Cicero, Saint Ambrose, or Saint Augustine.
2. Explain how these four tenets provide an ethical/moral justification for the use of force. 3. Apply these four tenets to the U.S.
invasion of Iraq and explain how they have both succeeded and failed in their justification for the use of force to the American public.
Some tenets from the Just War Theory of Cicero, Saint Ambrose, and Saint Augustine guide decision making even today about wars that are waged tomorrow. To truly understand this theory you have to look back to its beginning and Cicero%(27).
period in which there was the Fathers of the Church, consisting of Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, and Saint Jerome.
Saint Augustine was undoubtedly the most important figure of the time. (Other significant figures are Gregory of Nyassa, Ambrose, Saint Jerome, and Boethius.) Augustine’s major contribution to ethics is his account of the will (voluntas; see voluntarism).
Indeed, some philosophers (e.g., Albrecht Dihle ()) have argued that the modern and medieval concept of the will originates in Augustine.